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Located at the south eastern end of the Red Square, the Lobnoye Mesto is large stone platform also known as the Place of Skulls. Despite its grievous name, the platform was never used for beheading or executions but served as an announcement location and a major point of several parades, including the orthodox Sunday ritual called the "donkey walk' which concluded here. A brick platform is believed to have been built here in the mid-16th century but it was reconstructed and replaced by a white stone replica by Matvei Kazakov, a noted Russian architect.
The Spasskaya Toweris also sometimes known as the Savior Tower due to its association with the icon figure of the same name. Constructed in 1491 by the Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari, it features an ornate hipped roof and a large clockface denoting the official Moscow time. Located in the eastern section of the Moscow Kremlin Wall, it was the former main entrance to the Kremlin and today is only opened to allow the entrance of presidential motorcades, victory parades and other important events. The top of the tower gates is inscribed with a statement in dedication to Prince Ivan III of Russia and a restored wall painted icon of Smolensk Savior, the saint. A red star was put up on top of the tallest spire of the tower in 1935 by the Soviet government, which together brings the height of the structure up to 71 meters (233 feet).
The Monument to Minin and Pozharsky is a large bronze statue designed by notable Russian sculptor Ivan Martos and and made in 1816. The structure was made to honor the 200th anniversary of the war for independence against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth led by Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and a local merchant, Kuzma Minin both of whom are featured in the monument. The statues of the two men are carved in bronze and they stand on a large granite base which itself has a bronze plaque showing Russian citizens sacrificing their wealth for the sake of the country. The monument was formerly located in the Red Square but was later moved to its present location after the Communist officials found that it was creating an obstruction for parades and celebrations. A replica of the statue designed by Zurab Tsereteli is found in Nizhny Novgorod and was unveiled in 2005.
This is possibly the most famous central square in the world. It is a humbling sight both day and night; beautiful in winter when it is covered a pristine blanket of snow. Originally an expanse of nothing more than mud, and populated by a ragged collection of hawkers, beggars and outcasts, Red Square acquired its present size and stature gradually. The square and its surroundings exude the drama of Russia's past and present. The walls of the Kremlin (Kreml') (The) loom on one side, their blood-red height belittling the pale GUM department store opposite. At the southern end of the square towers, is the onion-domed exuberance of St. Basil's Cathedral (Sobor Vasiliia Blazhennogo).
Architect Alexei Shchusev (who built this imposing mausoleum on Red Square in 1930) modeled it on the ziggurat terraced temples of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians. Inside, visitors file round the embalmed body of the leader of the Russian Revolution, Vladiamr I. Lenin. The material used for the exterior is mostly dark-red granite and grey and black labradorite. The colors are in perfect harmony with the red bricks of the Kremlin Wall that looms in the background. It measures 12 meters in height and 24 meters in length.
The Kremlin Wall Necropolis is a a historic burial ground contain mass graves of soldiers who died during the Bolshevik October Revolution and many important politicians, dignitaries, scientists and astronauts. The location was first used for burials in 1917 and carried on until 1927 when only ashes of cremated bodies were allowed to be buried in the Kremlin Wall. However, the ground again came into service in 1946 but was exclusively reserved for noted national dignitaries. The final burial took place here in 1985 during Konstantin Chernenko's funeral. The site has been a protected heritage landmark since 1974 and tombs and busts of many famous personalities like Stalin, Suslov and Kalinin located along the granite steps.
Russia's walled fortress contains much of the country's history, politics and religion. The walls were originally built from white stone, but were rebuilt in the late 15th Century with their distinctive red brick. Visit historic religious sites including the Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspenskii Sobor), Archangel's Cathedral (Arkhangelskii Sobor), palaces (most notably the Patriarch's Palace (Patriarshii Dvorets), museums, and of course the official residence of the country's President. Entry to all attractions is via the Kutafia Tower (Kutaf'ia Bashnia) on the southern side.
This church is situated in a part of old Moscow known for its many beautiful churches. This particular one was one of the oldest stone buildings constructed at the Kitai Gorod wall. The church was designed in 1514 by Italian architect Alevise Friazin, who also designed the more famous Archangel Cathedral in the Kremlin. It was a church for tradesmen, built with the donations of rich merchants. St. Barbara was honored by the merchant fraternity by becoming the patron saint of trade. Today, this church is part of the Patriarch's Podvor'e (town house) in Kitai Gorod.