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Architect Alexei Shchusev (who built this imposing mausoleum on Red Square in 1930) modeled it on the ziggurat terraced temples of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians. Inside, visitors file round the embalmed body of the leader of the Russian Revolution, Vladiamr I. Lenin. The material used for the exterior is mostly dark-red granite and grey and black labradorite. The colors are in perfect harmony with the red bricks of the Kremlin Wall that looms in the background. It measures 12 meters in height and 24 meters in length.
The Kremlin Wall Necropolis is a a historic burial ground contain mass graves of soldiers who died during the Bolshevik October Revolution and many important politicians, dignitaries, scientists and astronauts. The location was first used for burials in 1917 and carried on until 1927 when only ashes of cremated bodies were allowed to be buried in the Kremlin Wall. However, the ground again came into service in 1946 but was exclusively reserved for noted national dignitaries. The final burial took place here in 1985 during Konstantin Chernenko's funeral. The site has been a protected heritage landmark since 1974 and tombs and busts of many famous personalities like Stalin, Suslov and Kalinin located along the granite steps.
Possibly the most widely-recognized of Russia's architectural monuments, St. Basil's looms at the southern end of Red Square (Krasnaia Ploshchad') in all its multi-colored, multi-coned glory. The cathedral's real name is the Cathedral of the Intercession. It was built between 1555 and 1561 to commemorate the victory of Ivan the Terrible over the Tatars in Kazan. The cathedral was built near the grave of the so-called, “holy fool”, St. Basil the Blessed, hence its popular and widely-used name.
Located at the south eastern end of the Red Square, the Lobnoye Mesto is large stone platform also known as the Place of Skulls. Despite its grievous name, the platform was never used for beheading or executions but served as an announcement location and a major point of several parades, including the orthodox Sunday ritual called the "donkey walk' which concluded here. A brick platform is believed to have been built here in the mid-16th century but it was reconstructed and replaced by a white stone replica by Matvei Kazakov, a noted Russian architect.
The Spasskaya Toweris also sometimes known as the Savior Tower due to its association with the icon figure of the same name. Constructed in 1491 by the Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari, it features an ornate hipped roof and a large clockface denoting the official Moscow time. Located in the eastern section of the Moscow Kremlin Wall, it was the former main entrance to the Kremlin and today is only opened to allow the entrance of presidential motorcades, victory parades and other important events. The top of the tower gates is inscribed with a statement in dedication to Prince Ivan III of Russia and a restored wall painted icon of Smolensk Savior, the saint. A red star was put up on top of the tallest spire of the tower in 1935 by the Soviet government, which together brings the height of the structure up to 71 meters (233 feet).
The Monument to Minin and Pozharsky is a large bronze statue designed by notable Russian sculptor Ivan Martos and and made in 1816. The structure was made to honor the 200th anniversary of the war for independence against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth led by Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and a local merchant, Kuzma Minin both of whom are featured in the monument. The statues of the two men are carved in bronze and they stand on a large granite base which itself has a bronze plaque showing Russian citizens sacrificing their wealth for the sake of the country. The monument was formerly located in the Red Square but was later moved to its present location after the Communist officials found that it was creating an obstruction for parades and celebrations. A replica of the statue designed by Zurab Tsereteli is found in Nizhny Novgorod and was unveiled in 2005.
People are familiar with these pictures from television: Heads of State and Government lay flowers on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier located at the Kremlin Wall in the Alexander Garden. Here lie the remains of a soldier killed in the defence of Moscow in World War II. His final resting place serves as a monument to all Russian soldiers who died in this war. A Guard of Honour was restored in 1997 and changes each hour.