Watched over by the Madonnina, the cathedral's high marble spires represent the city's most famous artistic and religious monument. The dimensions of Christendom's third-biggest church are still awe-inspiring, spanning 108 meters (354.3 feet) high and 158 meters (518.3 feet) long. A range of architectural styles feature the doorways of the 17th Century, the central balcony from the late 18th Century and the three main upper windows which are early 19th Century pieces by Carlo Amati. The Gothic cathedral's vast interior is grand with its impressive pillars, vaults, streamlined arches and wonderful statuary surrounding the nave. Light filters in through a crevice in the wall, positioning itself on the sundial that frames its main entrance. Gleaming statues carved out of Condoglian marble are perched atop its spires. Whether one is seeking religious fulfillment or is simply sightseeing, the Duomo leaves one spellbound.
Construction of the "Galleria", a typically 19th-century public building that is now one of the oldest shopping malls in the city, began in 1865 following a series of competitions for the design won by Giuseppe Mengoni. Large plaster eagles support its dome, 47-meter high and made of iron and glass. Note the designs on the interiors and the Neo-Renaissance-style stucco work and graffiti. The floor of the building was completely restored in 1966 in a rare mosaic showing the emblems of Italian cities.
Dating back to 1778 as a fitting replacement for the Teatro Ducale, the stately Teatro Alla Scala has since come to be one of opera's most legendary venues. The historic theater has hosted most of Italy's operatic masters alongside renowned international artists. Designed by noted architect, Giuseppe Piermarini, the theater's neoclassical facade has a palatial theater with six tiers of private boxes, topped by an intricate ceiling. Home to the prestigious La Scala Theater Orchestra, La Scala Theater Ballet and La Scala Theater Chorus, it remains one of the city's liveliest cultural venues. Apart from operas, the theater also hosts plays, ballet shows and numerous other cultural events throughout the year.
Once the palatial symbol of Visconti nobility, the Sforzesco Castle was reconstructed by Francesco Sforza, the duke of Milan in the 15th Century. He rebuilt parts of the original fortification, including the Torre del Filarete that towered 70 meters (230 feet) above other small towers. Deemed to be one of the largest bastions in Europe, this monumental citadel underwent several expansions and changes in the years that followed. When under Spanish rule, it was largely used as a barrack, before parts of it were demolished by Napoleon's troops. In the 19th Century, it was salvaged by architect Luca Beltrami. He rebuilt several parts of the castle, including the towers, the moat and even restored the historic Torre del Filarete to its former glory. The castle's archways give way to the regal courtyards of Rocchetta and Ducal, which house several archaeological and art museums.
Beautiful sculptures adorn the graves of those interred at the Monumental Cemetery. Originally laid out in the 19th Century, the cemetery encompasses a staggering collection of sculptural and architectural gems, each gracing the burial site of some of the country's most prominent families and individuals. The Famedio, or Temple of Fame, is one of its most distinctive features. Originally designed to serve as a church, the neo-Medieval structure now has the sarcophagus of the novelist, Alessandro Manzoni. The tomb of the Campari family is adorned by a large, bronze version of the Last Supper, while that of Arturo Toscanini is a masterpiece fashioned by the sculptor, Leonardo Bistolfi. Marvelous funerary art and ornamentation abound at the Monumental Cemetery, a favorite among art lovers.
The sprawling expanse of the Piazza del Duomo forms the heart of the city of Milan, both geographically and in terms of its cultural significance. While the site has always been an important reference point for town planners, the origins of this public square can be traced back to the 14th Century. It was Azzone Visconti who demanded the removal of the taverns that surrounded the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore and the Basilica of Santa Tecla, thus creating one of Italy's most iconic squares. Although both churches were eventually demolished to make way for the ambitiously designed Duomo, their foundations are still visible to this day. Today, the vast open space is crowned by the Duomo on one side and the Royal Palace on the other. Alongside them are sweeping arcades designed by Giuseppe Mengoni. A space surrounded by some of Italy's most recognizable structures, the Piazza del Duomo has rightly been termed as the focal point of Milan.
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and is famous as a hub for fashion and design. High-end, designer boutiques share space with generations-old shoe stores offering custom-made footwear fashioned from the finest Italian leather. Around every corner are heritage buildings, churches, and cathedrals that reflect ancient European charm, alongside contemporary constructions that blend in with the cultural milieu of the city. The Gothic Duomo di Milano and the convent of Santa Maria Delle Grazie are two of its most iconic attractions, paying homage to the arts. Milan is also a major financial center and has the 4th highest GDP in Europe. Home to the A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale Milano football clubs, the city proudly sports a passion for football that could easily match any European city. All this, as well as a culinary scene at par with the world's best, make Milan a city of endless discoveries.
Dating back to the 14th Century. the church of Santa Maria presso Santa Satiro is best known as an exemplary specimen of a trompe l'œil, or optical illusion, that creates a false impression of depth and space. At the time of its construction, Donato Bramante's original plans for the church were foiled when he received notice that he would not be allowed to take over the street behind the plot. Half-way through construction, it was too late for Bramante to alter the entire plan. Instead, he came up with an ingenious way to maintain the balance and proportions of his design despite the limitations thrust upon him - he created an optical illusion. Considered by many to be one of the earliest examples of the trompe l'œil, the false apse appears to be much deeper than it actually is when perceived from anywhere along the axis of the church. However, step to either side and the illusion is shattered. Besides this brilliant use of illusionary space, the church also boasts beautiful terracotta decorations, frescoes, and gilded details.
The Monument exemplifies the Italian proficiency over the art of sculpture, and architecture. Witness the excellent work of Ercole Rosa in the late 19th Century, as the particularly fascinating sculpture of Vittorio Emanuele riding his horse, with the pedestal flanked with sculptures of warriors, forms the focal point of the Duomo Piazza.
Palazzo dell'Arengario is a complex of two buildings in Milan, Italy. The place is a result of many local architects. The complex was finished in the mid 20th Century, after facing a lot of delays in its construction due to the Second World War. The complex is significant as it is one of the important landmarks in the city and houses an art museum, too.
Housed in the Palace of Ambrosiana, Biblioteca Ambrosiana is considered one of the most important institutions in the city. Founded by Federico Borromeo as a center for counter-reform culture, it gradually accumulated numerous collections of art, books and manuscripts. From the first nucleus, facing Piazza S. Sepolcro, the institution expanded to occupy the entire block. The vast collection of the library includes the Codice Atlantico by Leonardo da Vinci.